Dynamic stabilizers of the glenohumeral joint
Rotator cuff is a dynamic (functional) stabilizer of the glenohumeral joint and is a group of four muscles and their tendons:
1. Supraspinatus: abduction
2. Infraspinatus: external rotation
3. Teres minor: external rotation
4. Subscapularis: internal rotation
Long head of biceps tendon
Long head of biceps tendon is usually located inferiorly in the bicipital groove and held there by the bicipital pulley (the stabilization role of the transverse humeral ligament is controversial). As it moves superiorly, it arches through the rotator cuff interval where it is held by a sling formed by the SGHL and CHL.
CHL is a strong supportive ligament of the shoulder joint and is a part of rotator cuff interval.
CHL covers the long head of biceps tendon superiorly and is attached to the margin of the greater and lesser tubercle of the humerus and along the transverse ligament bridging the bicipital goove. It is rarely hypoplastic/aplastic (5%).