Hypoglycemic encephalopathy

Updated: Sep 30, 2018

Hypoglycemia is the sudden decrease in serum glucose level <50 mg/dL. In severe cases of hypoglycemia, the commonly affected sites are cerebral cortex, hippocampus and basal ganglia. In evaluating severe hypoglycemic encephalopathy, DWI should be used. Undiagnosed insulinoma, sepsis, renal or hepatic failure can also induce hypoglycemia. Hypoglycemia can cause several neurologic symptoms including memory loss, transient motor deficits, a persistent vegetative state, and in rare cases death. In hypoglycemic encephalopathy cases, the lesions show reversible cytotoxic oedema at the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, splenium of the corpus callosum (boomerang sign), internal capsule, and cerebral white matter.

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